Background history of learning disabilities

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Learning disability

Present to your audience Start remote presentation. Do you really want to delete this prezi? Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. No description. People with a learning disability tend to take longer to learn and may need support to develop new skills, understand complex information and interact with other people.


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The level of support someone needs depends on individual factors, including the severity of their learning disability. For example, someone with a mild learning disability may only need support with things like getting a job. However, someone with a severe or profound learning disability may need full-time care and support with every aspect of their life — they may also have physical disabilities. People with certain specific conditions can have a learning disability too.

What to Do if You Notice Signs of a Specific Learning Disability

Learning disability is often confused with dyslexia and mental health problems. Mental health problems can affect anyone at any time and may be overcome with treatment, which is not true of learning disability. Educational Leadership, 52 4 , Collins, K. Burr, E. Identifying and supporting English learner students with learning disabilities: Key issues in the literature and state practice REL — Klingner, J. Texas Education Agency The dyslexia handbook: Procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders.

Austin, TX. Balu, R. Evaluation of response to intervention practices for elementary school reading NCEE Department of Education.

Timeline of Learning Disabilities | LD Topics | LD OnLine

Hernandez, D. Double jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty influence high school graduation. Casey Foundation. National Center for Learning Disabilities Shields, K. How kindergarten entry assessments are used in public schools and how they correlate with spring assessments REL — NCLD on Facebook. NCLD Twitter. Search for:. Why Us?

Not all children with learning and attention issues are identified in school as having a disability. In the U. Department of Education USED issued two letters reminding states that intervention strategies cannot be used to delay or deny evaluation of students suspected of having a disability. For example, some students perform well in some content areas and not others, or they may score too high on assessments used to determine eligibility for special education.

However, in , USED reminded states that children with learning disabilities cannot be found ineligible for special education solely because they scored above a particular cut score established by state policy. This can lead to low self-esteem, school aversion and lost potential. The early signs of learning and attention issues often go unnoticed.

Historical background

Learning and attention issues affect children from all income levels, but low-income children are more likely to be identified as having SLD. In particular, environmental factors may play a role: Studies indicate that poverty increases the risk of low birthweight, exposure to lead and other risk factors associated with disabilities.


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Students who experience four or more ACEs are 32 times more likely to be diagnosed with learning or behavioral challenges. Income level Children in low-income families are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than children in higher-income families.

Characteristics of Learning Disabilities & Impact on Educational Outcomes - TRU

In —, Insurance may play a key role here. In —, children with public insurance had the highest rate of ADHD diagnoses Gender Several studies have found that boys are more than twice as likely to have been diagnosed with ADHD as girls. The CDC reported that in —, The reason for the gender difference in the prevalence of ADHD and several other neurodevelopmental disorders is not fully understood. Some but not all of the difference may be due to girls showing signs of ADHD that can appear different than in boys —and that are easier to overlook.

Age A large-scale study in Taiwan concluded that the youngest students in each grade were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than the oldest students—findings that are consistent with similar studies in the U. The study found that relative age increased the risk of ADHD diagnosis among preschoolers and grade-schoolers. Birth month had less of an impact on ADHD diagnosis among adolescents.

English language learners with SLD are overidentified in some states and underidentified in others. Even with the screening results, it may be hard for educators to differentiate between learning and attention issues and other reasons for underachievement. Educators can intervene as soon as student struggle is recognized. Schools need to provide ready access to specialists who typically only work with students who have IEPs or plans.

The History of Learning Disability

Targeted instruction and support are provided before a referral for special education assessment is made. Decisions about instruction and support are based on actual classroom performance—in addition to test scores and subjective observations. All school personnel need to develop expertise in collecting, interpreting and responding to student progress data.

READ Act funding for dyslexia research may help improve early intervention and identification. The law is aimed at producing new research that may lead to: Identifying dyslexia earlier Training educators to better understand and instruct students with SLD or dyslexia Curriculum and educational tools for children with SLD and dyslexia Implementing and scaling successful models of dyslexia intervention.

Other Subject Areas

Third-grade reading laws are expanding the use of early intervention in many states. Other states may not screen until grade 3. All students must be screened and observed in the classroom for reading difficulties at least yearly between Pre-K and grade 3. Intervention Most laws require an improvement plan and evidence-based interventions for students demonstrating difficulty with reading. Every year from Pre-K through grade 3, struggling readers must have individual reading plans and receive intensive, evidence-based interventions based on those plans.

Parent engagement Some laws have more detailed parent engagement plans than others. Policies must include parent notification and provide opportunities for parent engagement in developing and implementing interventions. Policies must provide students with multiple methods to demonstrate reading ability. Retention A majority of laws allow or require students to be retained—or not promoted to fourth grade—if they have not demonstrated a certain level of proficiency by the end of third grade. Some laws allow promotion as long as the student participates in summer school or some other intervention.

Some states limit retention to part of the curriculum rather than retaining a student in all areas, and require periodic reviews to determine if the student can rejoin the original grade cohort. If retention is required, it must be coupled with intensive intervention and a change in instruction.

States must make efforts to ensure that all teachers, especially third-grade teachers, are trained to provide reading instruction and can implement a full range of evidence-based strategies for struggling readers. Appropriate exemptions Most of the states that require retention will make an exception for students with IEPs and allow them to move on to fourth grade without meeting the reading proficiency requirements.

Exemptions are also typically available for English language learners ELLs.


  1. Timeline of Learning Disabilities.
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  5. Identifying Struggling Students - NCLD.
  6. The History of Learning Disability.
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  8. Students with disabilities, as a whole, must not be exempted automatically from these policies. Many students with disabilities are capable of meeting the same high standards as their peers when they are provided with appropriate supports and tailored instruction. State dyslexia laws aim to improve early intervention and identification.

    Universal screening: Some state laws require schools to screen all students in certain grades to find children who struggle with certain literacy skills. Some laws call for universal screening annually from grades K—3. Some begin as early as Pre-K. Evidence-based intervention: Many state laws require schools to provide evidence-based instruction for students who have been identified as displaying signs of dyslexia.

    Professional development: Some laws provide for the development of resources and information to help teachers identify and address dyslexia. Different states approach this in different ways.