Since , counties in California have been allowed limited home rule , with the Government of Los Angeles County the first in the nation to be granted home rule by charter in As of July 1, , there were incorporated municipalities in the state. California municipalities are either charter or general-law.
General-law municipalities have powers defined by the state's Government Code ; [note 3] charter municipalities may have increased powers, but the adoption or amendment of a city charter requires a popular vote. Most small cities have a council—manager government , where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city.
Some larger cities have a mayor—council government , with a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council—manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial.
Incorporated cities and towns have the power to levy taxes. They are responsible for providing police service, zoning , issuing building permits, and maintaining public streets. Municipalities may also provide parks, public housing, and various utility services, though all of these are sometimes provided by special districts, and some utilities are provided privately. Incorporated cities may promulgate ordinances which are usually codified in a city code, and violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction.
Residents of a sufficiently large piece of unincorporated county land can incorporate a city. The city government then takes some of the tax revenue that would have gone to the county, and can impose additional taxes on its residents. It can then choose to provide almost all the services usually provided by the county and more , or provide only a few and pay the county to do the rest.
A city in this last arrangement is called a contract city ; this type of contract is generally known among lawyers as the "Lakewood Plan", because it was pioneered by the city of Lakewood in Public education of children is provided by school districts , which are governed independently from cities. Each county has a board of education and superintendent that oversee school districts within the county. There are about 1, school districts. California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts.
School district and community college district boards may determine their own fiscal requirements—the counties levy and collect the taxes required, possibly subject to constitutional tax limitations and voter approval. Priest , school districts are funded through the State government through various funding formulas that allocate local property tax revenues and other revenue.
However, community colleges , which provide the first two years of post-secondary education and adult vocational courses, are organized in community college districts , which operate one or more community colleges within their jurisdiction.
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Community college districts in California are governed by elected boards. California's first community colleges were established as extensions of high schools. A special district is defined as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries"  and provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts , and provide one service. Most special districts have no police powers.
Independent special districts have elected boards.
Alameda Unified School District
Dependent special districts are governed by the city or county that created them. Regional bodies have boards appointed by the city and county governments they encompass. Some districts, often referred to as assessment districts , have voting based on the assessed values of the property contained within the district, rather than a popular vote; that practice was ruled constitutional for districts that provide benefits to the land in rough proportion to the value of the land, rather than to people within the district. Districts are categorized as enterprise districts and non-enterprise districts.
Enterprise districts operate as a business, and obtain most of their revenue from user fees or sales of a product or service. Enterprise districts include those that provide water, waste disposal, electric power, hospitals, public transit, and similar services. The most common type of special district is the utility district, which provides public utility services to residents within the district boundaries. Among the largest of these are the Sacramento Municipal Utility District , which provides electric power in the Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Water District , which provides water to local water agencies in the Los Angeles area, and the Imperial Irrigation District , which provides water for agriculture and electric power in Imperial County.
Another very common type of special district is the transit agency , which provides public transportation. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority provides bus and train services and funds some transportation projects, including bicycle paths, HOV lanes , and other road improvements. By contrast, the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District only operates a commuter rail service and buses to locations beyond the range of the rail service.
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There are at least 3, special districts, and possibly as many as 5,, depending on how they are counted. A partial list of the types of special districts includes: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: List of counties in California.
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See also: List of cities and towns in California. See also: List of school districts in California. Main article: California Community Colleges System. See also: List of colleges and universities in California. The Washington Post. California Government 5th ed. Cengage Learning. State and Local Government in California. University of California Press.
I had an odd sense of having been there earlier. I have tried to revisit but it has been turned into a rather exclusive condominium somewhat of a gated community. Please feel free to contact me. I would love access to some of those records and perhaps could be helpful to you. I live now in Rochester, New York, but most of my family remain in Utica.
She was adopted by a couple named Davis who lived around Hill City, Kansas. She was a baby at the time. A handwritten card was given to her by her adoptive parents. I have original correspondence from a Mrs. Kate Coe from the Life Line Orphange. It shows the address as being N.
Root Cellar - Sacramento Genealogical Society - Online Catalog
I could never find Mrs. Zimmerman, whose address in was Clark Dr. Anyone with any information on this that can share, it would be greatly appreciated. My gggrandmother placed two little girls here. They are on the census as Bertha abd Esther Guthman. I have found him on the census up to but cannot find anything on these two little girls.
I have much more family history I would be willing to share. I lived there from June through school year Looking for anyone during that era, especially 12 women who came from Cuba prior to the Cuban missile crisis, about Juanita Mondonedo.
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Then after we were living again with grandparents it was strange to be on the outside again "free" so to speak.